DYSARTHRIA IS DESCRIBED AS AN ORGANIC SPEECH DISORDER WHICH RESULTS FROM NERVE AND MUSCLE DAMAGE TO THE SPEECH MUSCULATURE. IT OCCURS IN PEOPLE WITH CEREBRAL PALSY, PARKINSON'S DISEASE AND MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
IT IS CLASSIFIED BY THE TIME OF THE DISEASE, ETIOLOGY (CAUSE) OF THE DISEASE, ITS NEURO-ANATOMICAL LOCATION, THE DAMAGE TO INDIVIDUAL PARTS OF THE VOCAL APPARATUS OR BY ITS CONNECTION TO SPECIFIC DISEASES.
Clinical features include voice respiration, phonation and articulation disorders. Disartric speech is the result of reduced, increased or uncoordinated movements of all the elements in the vocal apparatus. Dysarthria is also a name for smaller isolated disorders which occur due to the paresis of one of the peripheral speech organs - the tongue, lips, part of the soft palate or vocal cords, for example.
In some cases of dysarthria there is a distinct inability to obtain required intensity of voice and matching rhythm and pace.
The Exploratory Centre at the Mayo Clinic in the United States is the leading centre in providing new insights and achievements in the treatment of dysarthria.
The goal of therapy for dysarthria (depending on the type) is planning processes and exercises that will improve and enhance the mobility of the speech organs, exercising proper use of speech breathing, exercising concentration and attention, exercising rhythm and pace of speech and proper intonation. It is sometimes important do initiate speech, i.e. verbal activity, and the need for communication, because there can occur a lack of motivation, anxiety and resistance to speaking.